Tuesday, May 26, 2020
In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s Essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,Ã¢â¬ the author states, Ã¢â¬Å"I believe that the common man is as apt a subject for tragedy in his highest sense as kings were.Ã¢â¬ (Miller 14) The author deems that each individual had tragedies particularly the common man who dealt with it in his lifetime. He contends that tragedy possibly will also depict ordinary people in domestic surroundings. Miller had a new view of tragedy in which he saw tragic experience as impartial of widespread ethical matters. But, in all honesty, I would argue against MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s view of believing that tragedy is impossible in a world of moral relativity. Many views of tragedy have been portrayed over time; nonetheless the author shows a side which not many people seem to relate tragedy with although it is most likely one of the most common. In his paper, he describes a view of tragedy that is very different to how it has been illustrated in the past. This in turn ho oks the readers with two works that seemingly contradict with the ideas of Miller and can be seen as tragedies, they include Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Things Fall Apart and William Butler YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Second Coming.Ã¢â¬ In the novel Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, as we all readers know pursues the stereotypical set-up of developing a tragic hero to a certain extent. In my eyes, the common man is Okonkwo whose tragic figure is troubled with a fatal flaw that in the long run, directs to the ultimate devastation of him and thoseShow MoreRelatedTragedy and Common Man by Arthur Miller1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTragedy and the Common Man by Arthur Miller In this age few tragedies are written. It has often been held that the lack is due to a paucity of heroes among us, or else that modern man has had the blood drawn out of his organs of belief by the skepticism of science, and the heroic attack on life cannot feed on an attitude of reserve and circumspection. For one reason or another, we are often held to be below tragedy-or tragedy above us. The inevitable conclusion is, of course, that the tragic modeRead MoreTragedy And The Common Man By Arthur Miller2260 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesIn his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common ManÃ¢â¬ Arthur Miller redefines the genre of tragedy and the tragic hero. Miller defines a tragedy as a person struggling against an injustice in the world around him to, which he responds forcefully. Miller states that the Ã¢â¬Å"wound from which the inevitable events spiral is the wound of indignity, and its dominant force is indignationÃ¢â¬ (144). The wound originates from the injustice in the environment, but it is perceived by the character as an Ã¢â¬Å"indignationÃ¢â¬ or otherRead MoreQuest For Literary Form : The Greeks Believed That The Tragedy1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGreeks believed that the tragedy was the greatest form of drama, and AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of tragedy followed this belief. In the modern times, there has been a change in this view with various authors abandoning the classical form to follow more liberal forms of literacy. (Kennedy Gioia, Pp. 1203) Aristotle s Concept of Tragedy The analysis of Aristotle on tragedy formed the guideline for later poets in the Western civilization. Aristotle defined tragedy as Ã¢â¬Å"the simulation ofRead MoreTragedy and the Common Man1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArticle Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common ManÃ¢â¬ In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,Ã¢â¬ Miller mentions tragedy as manÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to gain his Ã¢â¬Å"rightfulÃ¢â¬ position in his society, and whoever that character may beÃ¢â¬âking or common manÃ¢â¬âthat character is eventually brought down by his or her tragic flaws and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what makes that character a tragic hero. In the past, there have been many tragic heroes which can relate to Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,Ã¢â¬ in bothRead MoreWilly Loman, the Modern Hero in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay Ã¢â¬Å"Tragedy and the Common ManÃ¢â¬ , a picture is painted of a Ã¢â¬Å"flaw-fullÃ¢â¬ man, known as the modern hero of tragedies. Miller describes what characteristics the modern tragic hero possesses and how he differs from the heroes depicted by classic Greek playwrights such as Sophocles and Aristotle. In order to understand how drastically the modern hero has evolved, one must first understand the basic characteristics that the heroes created by Sophocles and Aristotle encompass. TheRead MoreExamples Of Everyday Tragedy732 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesEveryday Tragedy When a person thinks of tragedy the thing that flows to mind is death and destruction. Even though this way of thinking is valid, there are several ways to analyze the concept of tragedy. Tragedy is when one suffers an unexpected punishment that has merged together through ones actions. Arthur Miller believes that tragedy can happen to any type of person if youre rich or if youre poor, no matter what, it can happen to all of us. Arthur shows this to us in the book Death of aRead More Analysis of veiwpoints on tragedy Essay864 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnalysis of veiwpoints on tragedy The question of what defines tragedy has been an issue addressed by several different literary minds since the day of Aristotle, the first person to define tragedy. When Aristotle first defined tragedy he believed tragedy was something reserved for a person of noble stature. He said this person was eventually brought down by a tragic flaw, hence the term tragedy. Robert Silverberg agrees with AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s views on tragedy, but other authors donÃ¢â¬â¢t acceptRead More Death of a Salesman is a Tragedy as Defined in Millers Tragedy and the Common Man1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDeath of a Salesman is a Tragedy as Defined in Millers Tragedy and the Common Man In Tragedy and the Common Man, Arthur Miller discusses his definition and criteria for tragedy as they apply to the common man. The criteria and standards proposed by Miller may be used to evaluate his timeless work, Death of A Salesman. The first major standard of tragedy set forth is:Ã Ã¢â¬Å"...if the exaltation of tragic action were truly a property of the high-bred character alone, it is inconceivable thatRead MoreConventions of Tragedy in A View From The Bridge By Arthur Miller1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesConventions of Tragedy in A View From The Bridge By Arthur Miller Arthur Miller manipulates his characters and uses literary devices to effectively convey to the audience the trajectory of Eddie Carbone and his flaws of misconduct in the play, A View From The Bridge. He uses all the conventions of a modern tragedy adequately to help arouse sympathy, suspense and fear from the audience at significant intervals of the playRead MoreA Survey of Tragedy984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Survey of Tragedy A modern tragedy of today and a tragedy of ancient Greece are two very different concepts, but ironically, both are linked by many similarities. In Ã¢â¬Å"PoeticsÃ¢â¬ , Aristotle defines and outlines tragedy for theatre in a way that displays his genius, but raises questions and creates controversy. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s famous definition of tragedy states: Ã¢â¬Å"A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious, and also as having magnitude, complete in itself in language with pleasurable accessories
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3334 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/03/20 Category Law Essay Level High school Tags: Second Amendment Essay Did you like this example? Arguably, one of the most talked about amendments and overall policy legislation pieces of modern-day politics. Now, more than ever, the testing and judgement of the Right to Bear Arms has placed the American people at opposing ends. As the amendment is written, A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed (United States Const., amendment II), the interpretation of the amendment has been sporadic throughout history. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Second Amendment" essay for you Create order The term militia has been understood in vastly different manners, yet the Supreme Court has only given a legitimate stance on this issue in recent years. It is important to not only look at the history behind the Second amendment, but it is also essential to examine what precedents and future outcomes can arise with weaponry and technology advancements, and where and how government regulations come into play. In United States history, there have been very minimal cases brought to the Supreme Court regarding the Second Amendment. Therefore, the few decisions made how been made surrounding the culture of the U.S. at the time of the case. And, as it is known, with a new Supreme Court comes different interpretations, goals, and motives for a decision. The increased jurisdiction and power of the Supreme Court has played a factor and most likely will play more of a factor in the future context of the amendment as a whole and its effects of present and prospective society. In regard to the history of this amendment, the first real Supreme Court case was with the case of United States v. Cruikshank. This was during the Louisiana election in 1872, and, at the time, the Republican and Democratic political parties became hostile towards one another. On Easter Sunday, what became known as the Colfax Massacre took place. A group of black Republicans were shot by democrats that belonged to a militia, and the perpetrators were charged with violating the 1870 Enforcement Act, meant to decrease KKK terrorism. The Supreme Court had a plethora of factors to consider when they heard this case. When it came down to it, the Court only really looked at the applications of the Second Amendment and what their verdict would be based on their interpretation. When the decision was made, the Court sided with the defendants, using the Right to Assemble and Right to Bear Arms as their reasoning. The Court stated that these amendments, along with the fourteenth, were put in place to restrict the federal government from infringing upon the rights of the people, and that it did not apply directly to individuals or the states (Federal Justice Center). Rights were then granted to the people and not on a national level. This narrow interpretation emphasized the pro-gun rights attitudes of many Americans, especially pre-World Wars era, where weapon technology drastically expanded. Ten years after the decision of Cruikshank came the case of Presser v Illinois. A group of German workers of the Socialist Labor party. Groups of men formed small armies in and near Chicago to prepare for any upcoming violent issues with opposing parties or groups. Herman Presser was amongst the men of these armies and argued that they were being deprived of not only their right to assemble Ã¢â¬Å" in this case, a military-like coalition Ã¢â¬Å" but also the right to bear arms as the Constitution allows. The Supreme Court used the ruling in United States v. Cruikshank to uphold Pressers claims. The diction of the First and Second amendments, once again, was read as not giving rights to the federal government; instead, the sovereignty remains in the individual, as this is considered to be a crucial right that cannot be taken from the American people. Justice Woods gave the opinion of the court, in which he wrote that the ruling followed precedence, as well as did not apply to the National government in the First, Second, or Fourteenth Amendment, just like the case of Cruikshank (Oxford Reference). Another case regarding the magnitude of the Second Amendment would not come about until 1939 with the case of United States v. Miller. What marks this case as odd, however, is that the defendant and his counsel were not seen before the Court. Because Jack Miller had already appeared in court to testify against his original gang of bank robbers, the judge ruled in favor of the Second amendment so that it would be appealed to the Supreme Court. He was not forced to be seen in front of the Court again, as he would have been set free and would have been in danger, since he cooperated with the government against the robbers. However, the plaintiff argued that the National Firearms Act of 1934 was an act to tax and, thus, not an infringement upon anyones Second Amendment rights (Legal Information Institute). The plaintiff continued by arguing that the gun used was in fact not one that was used for militia purposes. The final decision was that, The Court cannot take judicial notice that a shotgun having a barrel less than 18 inches long has today any reasonable relation to the preservation or efficiency of a well-regulated militia, and therefore cannot say that the Second Amendment guarantees to the citizen the right to keep and bear such a weapon. And, because of lack of opposition, the Court had no real choice but to side with the plaintiff in this case. The pivotal aspect of United States v. Miller is that this was the first time the Supreme Court had given jurisdiction to the federal government in concerns to gun regulation of any sort. In the cases of Cruikshank and Presser, the Courts prohibited the federal government from having a hand in play. This New Deal phenomenon of expanding national government interest is relevant and present in this case. With the attitudes of the executive branch drastically shifting, the political attitudes and opinions of the courts at this time, especially, also shifted, as did the power that the Courts hold as a whole. What we obtain from this is that government regulation of guns is more popular of a belief than it used to be. It seems that this interpretation is that if a weapon is not deemed as being of militia use, as opposed to firearms, it is not a protected right under the Constitution. The Courts did not outline whether the states had the individual right to control gun regulation on their own and out of national government jurisdiction. This issue does not truly come up until 2010, in the momentous case of District of Columbia v. Heller. Before, 2010, however, came the case of United States v. Emerson. Timothy Emerson was arrested for possession of a firearm while having a restraining order against him. Emerson then argued that this was a violation of his Second Amendment rights. The Supreme Court decided, though, that this was not a violation of the second amendment and that Emerson did not have the right to have a gun in this case. This is the first time we see a push away from focusing on the restrictions set by the federal government onto the issue of gun laws as they are applied to individual liberties. This 2001 case is just the leading point to the critical case of District of Columbia v. Heller. District of Columbia v. Heller has set the foundation and has shifted the view of the Second Amendment as it is practiced in our current time. Up until this point, many were still perplexed as to what the true limits of the Second Amendment were. As we know from historically, the right to bear arms was considered a natural right in the American eye rather than one that was granted by the government. For over a century, this amendment was interpreted as a limitation on Congress; as for states, the federal government would not interfere nor regulate interstate laws regarding guns. When we get to District of Columbia v. Heller, it has to be considered that the Supreme Court had not truly given a verdict as to what legitimate role gun rights held in our western democratic society. So, Dick Heller, a police officer in the District of Columbia, had a gun kept with him at home and on his person at all times, whether he was on the job or not, although this was not exactly permissible by law. The Firearms Control Regulation Act of 1975 came into question until the case made its way to the Supreme Court in 2010. But, what the Court decided was that all United States citizens Ã¢â¬Å" with obvious limits that will be late discussed Ã¢â¬Å" are entitled to Second Amendment privileges, as the law applies to restrict the federal government and not law-abiding citizens. Additionally, the Miller standard was reiterated, in which common sense gun laws, such as a gun needing to be registered and licensed, main and proper use for self-defense and hunting, and proof of use in military time. Heller wanted regulations of some sort, but he advocated that the states should have dictation over that and not the federal government. But, as long as guns were accessible to an extent, that was all he really wanted. Heller was successful in pushing forward an ideology that many Americans have believed Ã¢â¬Å" that the Second Amendment is a fundamental right to the people of the Free World. His case was the one that has set the foundation for states having the power to regulate gun laws as they choose. However, as previously discussed, Heller did not believe that every single American individual should have the right to own a firearm. He was sensible in that there should be restrictions on who can and cannot obtain one. Some standards in include having to be of a certain age (18), not being a convicted felon, not having a record of domestic violence, no illegal citizens or immigrants, and more. These listed restrictions have also been stepping stones to stricter gun legislation, which is an unintended result that Heller probably did not presume. So, we ask the Constitutional question here of what restrictions, if any, are placed on the Second Amendment (at least on a federal level), as well as how much the idea of a militia plays a role in the interpretation of the Second Amendment. With these restrictions comes a push for policy to enact laws that can force states to not sell guns to people who are not deemed to be responsible. Progressives, mostly, have pushed for stricter laws, as has the Brady Center and Brady Campaign. There are various viewpoints that need to be evaluated in this case, as it is such a crucial case of American history. After Heller, the main character in this case, we need to evaluate the viewpoints of those who are opposed to less strict gun laws and regulations, such as the Brady Center/Brady Campaign. They are a nonprofit, pro-bono organization who, contrary to popular belief, is not anti-gun rights. Their research is targeted as a health approach, in which they are seeing the immense amount of gun deaths taking place in this country and try to combat that. To do this, they say the most effective way is to have state legislators to make policies and the courts to make decisions that will still secure the liberties of the American people but can also aim to lessen gun violence in America. Private sales of guns are another important issue to the Brady Center and they use their research to show that past events and gun deaths have happened where the wrong people have obtained deadly weapons, such as the AR15 and AK47: deadly weapons meant for war combat. So, they believe these weapons and any semi-automatic weapon should be banned on a national level. Further, they advocate for stricter background checks and focus on the original intent of the Founding Fathers (bradycampaign.org). The Brady Center often highlights the preparatory clause of the Second Amendment, where a militia is cited. They have said that the amendment as a whole has been vastly taken out of context and has caused physical and unlawful issues for the U.S. This helps set up what many organizations nation-wide are currently aiming to do. Following so many recent mass shootings, The Brady Campaign and Center, as well as a plethora of other progressive legislators and groups, are working tirelessly to enact legislation that has stricter regulations on who can and cannot obtain a firearm. They want to enforce these laws and restrictions so that this Constitutional right is only able to be used by those who have proven to be responsible enough to own one. So, with the Supreme Court opening up their interpretation comes with more public outcry and more push to not necessarily reverse the Heller decision, but to ensure that the federal government finds whatever loopholes possible in ensuring that gun laws are effective and can keep people safe. So, in answering the question of what restrictions are placed on the Second Amendment, it is only to be said that the states have jurisdiction as to how much or little the restrictions are regulated. This adds to the grey area, but restrictions, specifically, have not been analyzed on a federal level by the Courts Ã¢â¬Å" yet. On the other side of the debate is the National Rifle Association, who, especially in recent years, has been under massive scrutiny for their views on gun rights in America. The NRA cites a few main points to justify the decision in the Heller case. Here, we have to ask the Constitutional question of what and who exactly does the Second Amendment give specific liberties to? The first main argument the NRA uses is the right to bear and keep arms. The phrase of the people in the Bill of Rights equates with individual freedom, as it has been clearly interpreted. The specific language used here has led to a narrow interpretation of this amendment. Additionally, they argue that if the connection of rights to the people is upheld in the First Amendment, it is not just to not apply that say precedence to the Second Amendment as well. If the intent of the Founding Fathers, as the NRA perceives, was to give states the jurisdiction to organize militias, then the same rights should be upheld in terms of individuals bearing arms. So, rather than strict ownership regulations, they feel the same considerations should be given to individuals gun rights as it does to militias. This would lead the amendment in two parts. The prefatory clause is that a well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State (US Const., amend. II), acts as the beginning of the two clauses within the Second Amendment that is not always relevant or requited. This, as the NRA interprets, would mean the second clause would read as, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed (US Const., amend. II). What we see from the NRA is a shift overtime in terms of values. At one point in time, specifically around the 1980s, the NRA was for gun regulations. As we have seen the gun debate become more and more polarized over time, their views have shifted towards extensively less restrictions on gun ownership. What we have to analyze, though, is that the NRA is not a government organization; they are a private entity that works for their constituents. So, as we look closely at the disparities between opinions on this issue, it is important to also consider what role these figures, specially the NRA, play in legislation. For the future, there can be a multitude of consequences if the NRA is having an active hand in enacting policy, especially on the national level. While the Constitution does not guarantee the rights of private companies to make policy, this does not mean that the path to where they have more of an influence is not paved, especially as or if the support for the NRA drastical ly increases. Lastly, we need to examine the side of the United States. The United States, specifically in the case of District of Columbia v. Heller, also had similar views to the NRA in terms of interpretation. In the United States brief, they state that there has already been a plethora of laws put in place regarding the sales, regulations, etc. of firearms between state lines and within (Rose). So, for firearms, especially, that are perceived to be of great dangerous (ex: machine-guns and similar weapons), there is already substantial prohibitions on the private selling of these. Government interest is still at play and is considered, although there has to be a balance in terms of ensuring liberty to the people as well. In addition, they do highlight that there are already restrictions put in place that limit who can and cannot possess a firearm, as well as say that the government ultimately does have jurisdiction when it comes to regulating sales. These are just the forefront arguments that a re brought forth. Along with the arguments mentioned, the United States further agrees with the NRA and other viewpoints that the right to bear arms is an individual liberty, as well as believe that there is an individual need for personal ownership of guns. In addition, specifically regarding the use of militias, the U.S. recognizes that, at the time that the Founding Fathers created the Bill of Rights, a militia was more of a necessary right than it is of todays time, so the interpretation of such should act accordingly. This helps clear up the question about what the Founding Fathers intended regarding the implications and applications of the right to bear arms altogether. The United States has a strong opinion that the Second Amendment has been and was always meant to uphold the individual liberties of the American people, even with the language of the amendment seeming ambiguous. Regarding the question brought up as to whether militias are still of main focus when it comes to the Second Amendment , the United States, as well as other groups mentioned, have decided that it probably is not relevant to the amendment as a whole anymore. Also, it is important to note that, when all was said and done, the Supreme Court ultimately focused on precedence of previous similar cases in history, although there have not been many (Rose). In regard to any of the cases mentioned before Ã¢â¬Å" U.S. v. Cruikshank, Presser v. Illinois, U.S. v. Miller, etc. Ã¢â¬Å" the outcome has always led to the Second Amendment upholding the right to bear arms for the American people. With this ruling, the Supreme Court did not necessarily challenge the interpretations of arms but rather took an activist stance regarding language that this amendment is a protected right that must be enforced within the understandings that precedence has set forth. This push away from how the Second Amendment was once understood that this interpretation is simply a restriction on the national government to protect the people and their natural rights Ã¢â¬Å" sets a different precedence for the Supreme Court going forward, which can and most likely will hold important policy legislation in the coming future. Even with a debate as polarized as the one on gun rights in America, it is fair to say that the interpretation of the Second Amendment has consistently guaranteed the right to bear arms for individuals. While restrictions need to be set in place, the amendment as a whole is more of a limit on the federal government than anything. But, since there has been more of a push recently for stricter gun regulations and laws, it seems as though politics will play a larger role in policy making than precedence might. Ultimately, the interpretations of future lawmakers and court justices are going to be the larger deciding factor in which consequences are truly going to be at play for the future of the United States.
Friday, May 15, 2020
It is my belief that in order for someone in the social work profession to serve vulnerable populations it was intended to serve, it is imperative to use critical thinking and ethical decision making in tandem to achieve the optimal result. The balance is a delicate and often complex. It requires a close examination or critically thinking, of all the issues not just within yourself, but the community as a whole, the individuals within it, and the client population that the social work serves. The social work profession is built on the foundation that each individual has equal worth and individual rights to self determination. Some mistakenly believe that this means simply doing what is right, but then the decision making is not based onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hanson. (2009) at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. The first step is to recognize the ethical issue. The second step involves getting the facts about your social issue. Next, it req uires the social worker to evaluate alternative actions by asking ethics approach questions. Fourth, it sets for the social worker to make a decision and test it and lastly, for the worker to act and then reflect on the outcome. To work through the ethical framework the social worker needs to be able to give critical thought to the issue as it arises and then use those critical thinking skills to complete the framework. When looking at client or social issues from a critical thought process, you should ask is everything of equal importance or is some part of it more important than another. Critically thought analysis should be used to determine that. At each step in the ethical decision making process, you need to be able to use critical thinking skills to determine if you have sufficient information to move on to the next step in the process. You may determine that additional information is needed or consultation needs to be sought before you will be able to arrive at the end result of the ethical decision making process. After weighting importance and establishing your confidence that the facts you gathered are sufficient, establish possible solutions and then move on to the next step in the process; a nalyzing the possible solutions to selectShow MoreRelatedEssay on Business Ethics and dilemma632 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages(1991). 2. Prepare a 3- to 5-page paper titled,Ã Corporate Social Responsibility. 3. Reflect upon your text readings from Chapters 1 and 9 with a focus on the following core concepts: Organizational Social Responsibility (Chapters 1 and 9) The Ethical Decision-making Process (Chapter 1) Corporate Reputation (Chapter 9) The Corporate Social Responsibility Pyramid (Chapter 9) The Importance of Trust (Chapter 9) The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility (article by Carroll and Chapter 9) 4.Read MoreI m A Good Teacher Essay934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2013). Ã¢â¬Å"In a growth mindset, people believe that their most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard workÃ¢â¬âbrains and talent are just the starting point. This view creates a love of learning and a resilience that is essential for great accomplishment,Ã¢â¬ writes Dweck. Students who embrace growth mindsetsÃ¢â¬âthe belief that they can learn more or become smarter if they work hard and persevereÃ¢â¬âmay learn more, learn it more quickly, and view challenges and failures as opportunities to improveRead MoreCritical Thinking And Teaching Methods1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages but rather accept it and move on. Critical thinking and efficient teaching methods have been suppressed in the current U.S. educational system, and the U.S. is suffering: once one of the front runners in education, the U.S. has fallen to twenty-seventh place according to the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Ironically, the definition of critical thinking, an often-used pedagogical term, requires the process of critical thinking, criticism, and debate, as the definitionRead MoreThe Essential Qualities Of A Critical Thinker1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesit is dormant; most is undeveloped. Improvement in thinking is like improvement in basketball, in ballet, or in playing the saxophone. It is unlikely to take place in the absence of a conscious commitment to learn. As long as we take our thinking for granted, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t do the work required for improvementÃ¢â¬ (The critical thinking community) Ã¢â¬Å"Development in thinking requires a gradual process requiring plateaus of learning and just plain hard work. It is not possible to become an excellent thinker simplyRead MoreCommunication Is A Basic Tool For Humans Essay972 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto communicate. For this we need to acquire a range of abilities and skills that will ensure the wellbeing of the patient in a holistic aspect (bio-psycho-social) such as empathy and active listening based on respect. In short, knowing what to say, how to say and what to do in any situation in which, it is not detrimental to the physical or social individual, but it is in psychological. Similarly we act as transmitters to broadcast a message, when we interact with our patients, in turn, act as receptorsRead MoreEthical Ethics And Ethical Issues1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesanalysis of ethical theories, legal and ethical issues which gives them an opportunity to practice real life ethical issues that are frequently complex and thought provo king. Readers are further implored to examine their personal, moral and ethical value systems and codes they work from in an attempt to assist them in developing an informed ethical conscience for making sound moral and ethical judgments. The author presents ethical dilemmas throughout the book which readers are encouraged to work throughRead MorePersonal Ethics974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescare by preventing illness, reducing suffering and promoting restoration of health in individuals, families, societies and communities. Nursing involves technical skills and abilities, duty and service to others with compassion and efficient decision-making. Nursing care ensures in meeting the needs of patients and their families during the care to relieve from the consequences of sufferings. Nurses have to be vigilant enough to assess and assure to avoid unwanted treatments leading to patient sufferingRead MoreA Handbook to Simplify Ethical and Moral Leadership Essay examples1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pa gesvision and core values that guide moral and ethical leadership at all times. Although morals and ethics are synonymous for the most part, the terms are distinguishable. Simply put, ethics is determinant of acceptable guidelines for behavior of a group or organization while morals exude individual beliefs of right and wrong derived from personal values (DuBrin, 2010). Guiding Leadership Principles Ã¢â¬â As a manager, it is customary that you will make decisions on a regular basis. With guidance of thisRead MoreThe Canadian Association Of Social Work1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages In the profession of Social Work there are several policies, procedures, rules and guidelines that govern the way we make ethical decisions. Our job as Social Workers is to be knowledgeable of the professions needs and engage, assess, intervene, and evaluate with individuals, families and organizations in order to help them understand the value and importance of self-worth and self-determination when making decisions. The Canadian Association of Social Work (CASW) provides us with a Code of EthicsRead MoreEthics, Conflict Management, And Organizational Commitment1664 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbusiness context, we can overall have a better understanding of why individuals choose to behave a certain way when on the job. For ethical decision-making, I will explore the steps invol ved in the decision-making process and what internal factors of an individual cause he or she to make an ethical or unethical choice. In terms of conflict management, I will discuss previous works of literature that contribute to the overall study of this topic and experiments that give researchers a better understanding
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Functional Health Pattern Assessment |Functional Health Pattern |Toddler |Preschool-Aged |School-Aged | |Assessment (FHP) |EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: |EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: |EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: | |Pattern of Health Perception and|Toddlers rely on their parents for|Preschoolers now have an interest of being curious |School age children perceive health as by germ theory,| |Health Management: |health promotion. Parents should |about the body of the opposite sex. |punishment theory, or external forcesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Should eat three meals and one to two snacks| |List two normal assessment |from breast milk and the bottle. |and calcium intake of 500mg/dL. Also, should eat |daily , and drink 3 cups of milk, and eat foods with | |findings that would be | |half of their diet in carbohydrates, proteins, fats,|vitamins A and C , meats 5 oz., fruits and vegetables | |characteristic for each age | |and limit the intake of salts and |2 -2 Ã ½ cups daily.(Edleman, C. Mandle,2010,p.512) | |group. | |sugar.(Edelman,C.Mandle,2010,p.482 | | | | | | | | | | | | |List two potential problems that| | | | |a nurse may discover in an | | | |Show MoreRelatedChildrens Functional Health Pattern Assessment2087 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers acquire new abilities and a chance to shape self-confidence and independence. | Preschool-Aged EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt The longing to do what adults to creates awkward circumstances. | School-Aged EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority Cultivate fresh abilitiesRead MoreChildrens functional health pattern assessment5442 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) Toddler EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: 1-3 Years old Autonomy vs shame Preschool-Aged EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: 3-6 years old Initiative vs guilt School-Aged EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: 6 years old-puberty Industry vs inferiority Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problemsRead MoreChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Essay3555 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) Toddler EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: Autonomy versus shame and doubt Preschool-Aged EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: Initiative versus guilt School-Aged EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Developmental Stage: Industry Versus inferiority Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. Read MoreFamily Health Assessment1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFamily Health Assessment A family health assessment is an important tool in formulating a health care plan for a family. This paper will discuss the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s role in family assessment and how this task is performed. A nurse has an important role in health promotion. To perform these tasks the author has chosen a nuclear family. By the use of family focused open ended questions, 11 functional health patterns were covered. This principle is known as the GordonÃ¢â¬â¢s functional health patterns. ThisRead MoreEssay on Family Health Assessment1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFamily Health Assessment A family health assessment is an important tool in formulating a health care plan for a family. This paper will discuss the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s role in family assessment and how this task is performed. A nurse has an important role in health promotion. To perform these tasks the author has chosen a nuclear family. By the use of family focused open ended questions, 11 functional health patterns were covered. This principle is known as the GordonÃ¢â¬â¢s functional health patterns. ThisRead MoreEssay on Family Focused Health Assessment Questions - Lou Ann Lake1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFamily Focused Health Assessment L. L. Grand Canyon University August 11, 2013 Family Focused Health Assessment As the society we live in continues to transform, nurses need a comprehensive tool to assess familyÃ¢â¬â¢s health patterns. Family units are influenced by environment, biological, mental, social and spiritual factors. Assessing these areas for health promotion and disease prevention will take all of these influences into consideration (Edelman amp; Mandle, 2010). A priority toRead MoreGordons 11 Functional Health Patterns1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGordons 11 Functional Health Patterns Family Health Assessment Introduction This assessment used Gordons functional health patterns to assess Mayards family. This method was developed by Marjorie Gordon back in 1987. It acts as a guide for establishing comprehensive nursing data ADDIN EN.CITE Andrews1993318(Andrews Andrews, 1993)31831817Andrews, M.A., Andrews, J.R. . Family-centered techniques: Integrating enablement into the IFSP process. JCCD,Journal of Childhood Communication DisordersRead MoreFamily Health Promotion1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbe successful in its role towards family health promotion, it is important to familiarize itself with the GordonÃ¢â¬â¢s eleven functional health patterns. These patterns serve as basis for nursing diagnosis and health promotion. It focuses on how developmental tasks are completed by the family, it assist with learning about health perception and beliefs; it also assists the nurse to formulate health promotional goals and ways to improve familyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall health practices (Edelman amp; Mandle, 2010). ThisRead MoreAn Overview of Childhood Leukemia704 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesis being required to donate a kidney to her sister. Functional Assessments Health Perception/Health Management: Despite the fact that she needs a kidney transplant, Kate wishes to see herself as normal and develop as a normal adolescent. Nutrition/Metabolic: A healthy diet for someone with leukemia is similar to that of the everyday population (Suszynski 2011). Kate must modify her diet, however, given her failing kidney. Pattern of Elimination: Normal until recently, given that cancerRead MoreFamily Health Assessment : Family Assessment Essay1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFamily Health Assessment Family is so important in the society and it is a blessing from God. Healthy behaviors learn from within the family and family memberÃ¢â¬â¢s stimulus one to each other with health promotion practices. There fore, the health behaviors are very essential in the family assessment and which notifies health-promotion and disease-prevention. Within families, members will be the first one to learn about to promoting health. Families have impact on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle choices. The American
In Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, the social boundaries that we have today regarding sex does not exist, families are obsolete as citizens are made in BokanovskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Process (one that does not require sex meaning, the need for parents is gone), and the government conditions their citizens from early ages to keep stability throughout its regime. Brave New World follows protagonist Bernard (and his hidden love for nature and struggle for freedom) through this society, revealing all of itÃ¢â¬â¢s glory, from soma to Helmholtz the literature lover to the Savage Reservation, where modern day beliefs still reside in this negative utopia, leading us to John the Savage, which leads to the ultimate conclusion of Bernard, Helmholtz and John the Savage. Aldous Huxley, through Brave New World, answers the question of what society would look like if the government gave people happiness and stability at the cost of individual freedom. The novel, Brave New World, shows us the severe contrast between the people whom were raised on the Savage Reservation in nature and learned language through literature versus the citizens of the Brave New World who were reproduced from machines whilst conditioned to fear certain things (nature and literature) at a young age. In Brave New World, Ã¢â¬Å"People are happy...they never want what they canÃ¢â¬â¢t get...theyÃ¢â¬â¢re blissfully ignorant of passion...theyÃ¢â¬â¢re so conditioned that they practically canÃ¢â¬â¢t help behaving as they ought to behave...and if anything should goShow MoreRelatedA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley668 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn Brave New World, there are similarities that have a deeper meaning that we can understand. There are personal effects in Aldous Huxley life that contribute to what he has written in the book. Aldous Huxley throughout his life have seen, done, and events have happened to him, just like all of us, but he has expressed it in his book. So when Aldous wrote the he had so many ideas. I have read the book; itÃ¢â¬â¢s notRead MoreBrave New World by Aldous Huxley811 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Brave New World is based around characters who gave up the right of freedom for happiness; characters who ignored the truth so that they could live in a utopian civilization. The deceiving happiness was a constant reminder throughout the book. Almost every character in Brave New World did whatever they could to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. In this society, happiness is not compatible with the truth because the World State believes that happiness was at the expense of theRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Brave New Feminist The novel Brave New World written by Aldous Huxley in 1932 is known for its social satire, utopian values, and unusual standpoints on stereotypical gender roles. In this time where futuristic technology has completely taken over, and men and women are given the same opportunities for everything, Ã¢â¬Å"the genders appear equal within the social order; both men and women work at the same jobs, have equal choice in sexual partners, and participate in the same leisure pursuitsÃ¢â¬ (MarchRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley664 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesfor the fact being in the future and in the past time has changed and many differences were made. In his Dystopian Society Huxley portrays masses of niches where the government produces clones for specific reasons. Huxley decides throughout Brave New World that cloning humans is unethical. He then becomes in contact with the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful Alphas and Betas clones. Huxley suggest in BNW that lower class groups in clo ning humans to act like servants to terrorize them into working hard conditionsRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In the world of sex, drugs, and baby cloning you are going to be in many situations where you feel like the world we live in should be different. In the story Brave New World, they had sex with multiple partners along with a very bad use of drugs. It is weird that Aldous Huxley wrote this book in 1931 about the world he was living in during that time and how it is similar to the world we live in today. Nowadays, drugs are still being used and people are still engaging in sexual encounters withRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s utopia in Brave New World foreshadowed and illuminated the complications within modern day society. Upon its release, the narrative became widely banned all over the United States due to the unorthodox thoughts and actions of multiple characters in it. Early readers, as well as modern day audiences, feared and rejected the ideals that Huxley incorporated into his perfect society; however, our society today is heading towards the dark paths the older generations desired to avoid. Read MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley895 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe novel Brave New World, Aldous Huxley tells of a society where everyone is the same but, compared to t odayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, everything is different. Huxley tells of a world where everything that happens or takes place is because of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own desire and nothing more. The hero in the novel, a Ã¢â¬Å"savageÃ¢â¬ named John, is HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s main focal point. It is through his eyes and mind that the reader sees whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on. Now when I read this novel, I began to think, Ã¢â¬Å"Could this perfect, conformed world actuallyRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimperfect world and is usually only a hopeful dream. These types of worlds can greatly be described in detail through the world of science fiction. Aldous Huxley was an English writer who lived during a time when war and chaos were engulfing the world. His works reflect his view and thoughts on a dystopia, which is a false utopia, and describes what could occur in possible governments of the world. The ability to understand and dive into the thoughts of the author is what make s world literatureRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley614 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesthem truly happy. What if someone were to tell you that what you thought was true happiness was all an illusion. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley people in the world state are conditioned and drugged up by soma to not experience true happiness. In a world that is perfect, human beings do not have to depend on drugs to keep our world in balance. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley there is always a perfect drug called soma that keeps everyone happy, which they have based their society on. ThisRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWelcome to a world were Ã¢â¬Å"BraveÃ¢â¬ is not just a word; It has a true meaning. This is a story were everything as you know it, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be right and will completely change your way of thinking. When this story was written, life was very harsh for many peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦.Mostly for the author who wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New WorldÃ¢â¬ During this time (1930s) they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much sexual content Living The Future Of The Past In The PresentÃ¢â¬ ¦.. In the air; But Aldous made a future full of sex for them and we are the
Question: Discuss About The Optimizing It Financial Economic Activities? Answer: Introducation According to the provided information, it has been identified that Jan Rossi is the accountant of Bonza Hnandtools Limited. The person has come up with a proposal of making the selling price per unit to $140, as it would help in increasing the profit margin. This could be validated with the help of figures seen in accordance with the above table. This is because the adoption of this proposal would help in increasing the profit margin by $75,000, as the current profit level would change from $300,000 to $375,000. However, for experiencing this increase in profit level, an effective advertising campaign is required for Bonza Handtools Limited. In order to conduct this advertising campaign, it would have to spend $125,000. If the advertising campaign fails to meet the desired goals of the organisation like dragging the attention of the customers, it might lead to rise in the overall risk level. The effect would be considerable decline in the existing profit level of the company, while the burden of cost for promotion and advertising would rise largely. In order to combat with this situation, the management of Bonza Handtools Limited would have the selling prices of its products and hence, the customers might have to bear additional costs to avail the products of the organisation. As a result, the organisation might experience reduction in customer loyalty (Alammar and Kohn 2016). Proposal of the production manager: According to the provided information, it has been identified that Tom Tune is the production manager of Bonza Hnandtools Limited. According to the personnel, there should be increase in sales volume by 25% with rise in variable cost per unit by $5. The intention is to improve the overall product quality for generating additional revenues. For this goal to be achieved, it is necessary for the company to use promotional tools that would cost $50,000. As identified from the case study, the contribution margin per unit would decline, if there is increase in variable expense. However, it is to be borne in mind that the person has suggested an advertising campaign, which is although lower in contrast to the proposal of the company accountant, despite the profit level remaining the same. The motive is to enhance the level of satisfaction of the customers by improving the overall quality of the products. Moreover, this proposal would fetch long-term benefits to the organisation in the form of new and repeat purchases. This is because with the improvement in product quality, the existing customers would tend to buy more and new customers might develop that might lead to generation of additional profit in future years. Proposal of the sales manager: According to the provided information, it has been identified that Mary Watson is the accountant of Bonza Hnandtools Limited. According to the personnel, it is necessary to reduce the selling price by $10 per unit for the initial three months of the accounting period. In addition, the company is needed to incur cost of $40,000 in advertising, which would lead to profit generation of $60,000. However, the repercussions might be negative for the organisation in the long-run. The reason is that the fall in the price of its products might result in negative thoughts in the minds of the customers due to the fact that the product quality has degraded. Thus, the revenue generating capacity of the company might be reduced. Recommendations: The above analysis clearly inherits that the directors of the organisation should accept the proposal of its production manager. This is because reliance is kept on improving the product quality and total sales volume. As a result, a profit of $75,000 would be generated. Although the profit is identical to the accountants proposal, there is adequate risk involved in the latter alternative due to greater focus on promotional and advertising campaign. The third alternative would result in increased profit compared to the second proposal. This is because the organisation is likely to encounter an increase in customer turnover. However, after crucial analysis of the provided alternatives, Bonza could adopt the proposal laid down by its production manager, Tom Tune. The below-stated table is formed based on the present plan and two proposed capacities of production of Bonza depending on the given information: The information provided states that the Tassie Company has the ability of manufacturing 200,000 units per annum. However, it is currently manufacturing 150,000 units as laid down in the existing plan. In the words of Butler and Ghosh (2015), if the use of the overall capacity is made, the volume of sales could increase leading to rise in the income level of the organisation. However, as argued by Bennett and James (2017), if the production capacity is increased in case of falling market demand, the company might encounter significant loss. In the provided situation, the existing level of production need not have to be sacrificed to manufacture the additional 40,000 units needed to fulfil the contract of the government. Therefore, the Tassie Company would be able to sell its products at $10.80 each unit. The per unit cost is obtained by adding variable expense, fixed expense and mark-up cost on cost price (Collier 2016). The provided scenario clearly states that the company has the capability of manufacturing 180,000 units per annum. However, the present level of production is 150,000 units per annum. In such scenario, it is required to sacrifice 10,000 production units for earning a profit of $2.50 each unit in order to execute the government contract successfully. Therefore, the average price would be $10.80 each unit for the initial 30,000 units and for the leftover units, the average price would be $13.30 each unit. Thus, the average price of the overall number of units is calculated as $11.43. Segmented overhead cost pools and activity-based costing help in distributing the amount spent on a specified activity depending on the department head. In the words of Collier (2015), the allocation of cost is made for activity depending on the time spent in the production department in order to manufacture goods and services for activity-based costing. Along with this, the usage of segmented overhead cost pools as well as activity-based costing provides a platform for the managers of an organisation in making decisions related to the structure of cost. This is because the motive is to maximise the level of profit. A favourable situation might arise in front of the production manager of a firm while the customer negotiations are carried out (Edmonds et al. 2016). The actual direct cost in relation to a specified department is detected and based on such detection; the anticipated departmental hours are computed in case of activity-based costing. When the above-depicted steps are carried out, the division of actual direct cost is made by the anticipated hours. This would enable in arriving at the per unit rate. Moreover, after evaluation of the unit cost, each cost activity could be apportioned to the product so that activity-based costing could be used (Weygandt, Kimmel and Kieso 2015). Furthermore, at the time the cost is ascertained under activity-based costing and then the cost of overhead per unit could be anticipated that could be distributed to each product. Henceforth, it could be used to ascertain the unit cost of each product, which would help in generating greater sales and profit margin. The direct cost includes the cost pool, while the detection of anticipated hours is carried out as driver of cost (Klychova, Faskhutdinova and Sadrieva 2014). As a result, the fall in cost is inevitable coupled with formation of competitive pricing structure and rise in business income. For instance, the apportionment of supervision charges is carried out by taking into consideration the total number of staffs in a specified department (Kravet 2014). Thus, it could be stated that cost pool is beneficial for tracking the cost driver useful in gaining an understanding of the total cost. The overhead segmentation is highly advantageous at the time of cost determination; however, such declaration is not made in the normal course of a business, particularly during the projection of overhead costs, despite their relationship. Every production department would receive an allocation of income and expense for identifying those business areas, which are providing maximum profits to the organisation (Mouritsen and Kreiner 2016). On the other hand, if the concentration lies on beyond a single product, there could be efficiency in the cost of overhead. As a result, it would be easier for the managers to project the profit margin pertaining to the product line. Along with this, the identification of overhead would be easier for the accountant of the firm that might result in product variations. Such variations could be either positive or negative. As a result, various heads of expenses would be used for segregation of the overhead costs. Thus, the costs could be determined in r elation to single jobs or services. Some examples could be provided to gain an overview of various types of cost falling under the expense head. The variable overhead comprises of wages material handling along with equipment utilities and production supplies. The indirect overhead might be in the form of telephone and office expenditures, salaries of the administrative staffs, legal costs, research and development cost and finally, auditing and accounting fees. The administrative overhead takes into account office supplies, expenses related to front office, wages or commission, external audit and legal costs and lease related to sales office and administration. Finally, the manufacturing overhead is made up of factory rent, salaries for the managers and maintenance personnel, property taxes, factory utilities and janitorial employee wages. Some real-life instances could be used to describe the overhead costs. For instance, in Victoria State Hospital, in order to fix timing of treatment, the use of computer system is made on the part of the physicians and such usage is carried out mainly at the nurse station (Osadchy and Akhmetshin 2015). Along with this, the orders related to treatment and other materials are requisitioned and the other costs and charges are recorded in a systematic way, as per the stay of the patient in the hospital. The costs pertaining to medicines, meals of the patients, X-ray reports and bed fees are taken into account. Therefore, as soon as the patient recovers, the hospital authority provides bills to the person. These bills mainly include fees of the doctors attended, medicines coupled with both direct and indirect overhead costs. Thus, there is effective presentation of the costs in subsidiary ledger that includes medical number and episode number of the patients. Another instance of a manufacturing organisation in Australia, Adelaide Brighton Cement, could be cited that allocates the labour hours in order to assign the precise cost to the employees in order to generate costs that the company would have to bear (Siguenza-Guzman et al. 2014). Along with this, the direct cost and labour hours pertaining to the workers are maintained on the part of the lawyers and the accountants. At the time the allocation of cost is conducted to distinct services and jobs, it becomes simple to track the precise cost amount to be spent. Hence, it assists in formulating the policy related to pricing along with undertaking effective decisions. At the time the overhead cost is allocated to different services and jobs, the total cost of every department is detected and the benefits obtained from all the departments. References: Alammar, A. and Kohn, D., 2016. Proper Accounting is Vital for Sustainable Business Growth. Bennett, M. and James, P. eds., 2017.The Green bottom line: environmental accounting for management: current practice and future trends. Routledge. Butler, S.A. and Ghosh, D., 2015. Individual differences in managerial accounting judgments and decision making.The British Accounting Review,47(1), pp.33-45. Collier, P., 2016. Accounting For Managers Interpreting Accounting Information For Decision Making 0470845023. Collier, P.M., 2015.Accounting for managers: Interpreting accounting information for decision making. John Wiley Sons. Edmonds, T.P., Edmonds, C.D., Tsay, B.Y. and Olds, P.R., 2016.Fundamental managerial accounting concepts. McGraw-Hill Education. Klychova, G.S., Faskhutdinova, ?.S. and Sadrieva, E.R., 2014. Budget efficiency for cost control purposes in management accounting system.Mediterranean journal of social sciences,5(24), p.79. Kravet, T.D., 2014. Accounting conservatism and managerial risk-taking: Corporate acquisitions.Journal of Accounting and Economics,57(2), pp.218-240. Mouritsen, J. and Kreiner, K., 2016. Accounting, decisions and promises.Accounting, Organizations and Society,49, pp.21-31. Osadchy, E.A. and Akhmetshin, E.M., 2015. Accounting and control of indirect costs of organization as a condition of optimizing its financial and economic activities.International Business Management,9(7), pp.1705-1709. Siguenza-Guzman, L., Van Den Abbeele, A., Vandewalle, J., Verhaaren, H. and Cattrysse, D., 2014. Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing to support library management decisions: A case study for lending and returning processes.The Library Quarterly,84(1), pp.76-98. Weygandt, J.J., Kimmel, P.D. and Kieso, D.E., 2015.Financial Managerial Accounting. John Wiley Sons.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Is health merely the absence of disease, or is it more complex and comprehensive? Answer: Introduction Every being desires to be in good health as it influences how one feels, participates, and functions in society. The concepts of illness and health goes beyond any one perception and can be challenging to measure and define. The two encompass a broad variety of events and experiences and interpreting them may be in reference to social context and norms. That said, illness and health concepts can be interpreted differently by diverse societies, groups, and individuals The WHO definition of health is broadly accepted as it encourages a health concept that is holistic. WHO defined health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity(WHO, 1946).The definition includes social and mental dimensions and shifts away from focusing on dysfunction and physical abilities only. This broad perception of functioning and health has been incorporated by Australias health 2014 both to include other dimensions such as environmental, socio-economic, cultural, genetic mental , and physical dimensions. The concepts that form the basis of this perception include: the well being of a person is dependent on health which impacts how they function and feel; economic and social well being are influenced by health; health goes beyond the absence of injury or disease and also that good health is experienced at different degrees; health management includes the ability to identify risks and manage them, promotio n of good health, and prevention of diseases; development of disease process can take a period of several years prior to manifesting through symptoms. Hence according to AIHW(2010), a disease is a mental or physical disturbance that involves tissue damage, dysfunction, or symptoms while sickness/illness is a concept that is more subjective and which is related to one's individual disease. Religion and Cultural Factors A person's culture and religion play a significant role in affecting one's view of health(Koenig, 2012; Eckersley, 2007). Society is rich in diverse ethnicities, religions, and cultures. As a registered nurse, one needs to have a knowledge base that is culturally diverse in order to provide patient-centered, individualized care. In addition, a nurse needs to have an understanding of the rationale that supports those beliefs as they can have an impact on the overall care plan of the patient. The goal of increasing one's knowledge base on religious and cultural diversity is to minimize the likelihood of poor patient outcomes, increase the patient's overall satisfaction, as well as improve the quality of care while utilizing the best of practices (Wilson, Lee, Cordero et al., 2008). Determining What the Patient Prefers Religious Preferences The first step to holistic and relevant patient care starts during the admission process where the nurse should ask the patient about their religious preferences. This information should be incorporated into the patient's care plan where applicable. On the other hand, a nurse should not make assumptions with regard to the information that he/she receives on patient's preferences. There are those patients that will adhere strictly with their religious beliefs while yet others have a modified belief of their religion. The nurse should wait for an opportune time when the patient is alone and away from friends and family members to inquire on their religious preferences. By so doing, the patient will not feel unduly influenced or coerced by possible opposition from friends or family. For example, a Buddhist patient may refuse to have analgesics administered as a clear mind is a critical component in Buddhism. Such a patient will often prefer pain management interventions that are non-pharmacological such as relaxation and meditation. A Buddhist will emphasize on peaceful meditation and mindfulness during times of crisis or sickness. In such a case, a nurse should try to provide a setting of tranquility and quietness. A Jewish patient will observe the Sabbath which commences on Friday sundown and ends on Saturday sundown. A nurse will need to avoid as much as possible, scheduling any medical procedures or discharging the patient on a Sabbath(Ehman, 2012) Cultural Preferences The level at which the patient believes that health information is culturally relevant has significant effect on their willingness to utilize it. Patient compliance is greatly impacted by cultural issues (Saha, Beach, Cooper, 2008). An example is with reference to the cultural beliefs of Pacific Islanders and Asians which nurses need to familiarize themselves with. In this example, the extended family has a significant role that they play and more so the eldest male who is the family spokesperson and key decision maker. The family honor and interests surpass those of an individual. The older family members are accorded respect and unquestionable authority. With the Asian communities on the other hand, harmony is highly valued and direct confrontation and conflict are avoided at all costs. Because of respect for persons in authority, recommendations made by healthcare professionals will not be met with any opposition. However, agreeing with the decisions made by the healthcare professional does not necessarily lead to compliance to the treatment recommendations. Indigenous communities also believe in family value and the role of the spiritual supernatural beings in their health. Their belief is that an individual enjoys good health when they are in complete harmony and are one with nature. Illness is as a result of this balance and harmony being tipped and often a Shaman will be consulted to help the sick individual to realign himself/herself with supernatural forces and nature (ShihYu, 2013; Wooksoo Keefe, 2010). Conclusion For effective care delivery, it is paramount for a nurse to widen his/her scope of knowledge in different cultures and religions. The nurse should research on the patient's religious and cultural beliefs that would impact the acceptance and compliance to care services that the patient receives. Close attention should be given to the patient's body language, expressions of anxiety, lack of response or any other signals that could indicate conflict but are hesitant to speak up. The nurse should ask the patient open ended questions to clarify on any expectations and void any assumptions. By so doing, the nurse will get accurate information on what would enhance the patient's experience and would result in better health outcomes. References AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2010.Australia's health 2010. Cat no. AUS 122. Canberra: AIHW. Eckersley, R. (2007) Culture, spirituality, religion and health: looking at the big picture. Med J Aust 186 (10 Suppl): S54. Ehman, J. (2012) Religious Diversity:Practical Points for Health Care Providers. Penn State University. Available at: https://www.uphs.upenn.edu/pastoral/resed/diversity_points.html Koenig HG. Religion, spirituality, and health: the research and clinical implications.ISRN Psychiatry.2012;2012:278730 Saha, S., Beach, M. C., Cooper, L. A. (2008). Patient Centeredness, Cultural Competence and Healthcare Quality.Journal of the National Medical Association,100(11), 12751285. ShihYu, S. (2013) Providing Culturally Competent Mental Health Care to Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Asian-American and Pacific-Island Nurses,Magazine https://minoritynurse.com/providing-culturally-competent-mental-health-care-to-asian-americans-and-pacific-islanders/ WHO (World Health Organization) 1946. Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health conference, New York, 1922 June, 1946. New York: WHO. Wilson-Stronks A, Lee KK, Cordero CL, Kopp AL, Galvez E. (2008). One Size Does Not Fit All: Meeting The Health Care Needs of Diverse Populations. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: The Joint Commission Wooksoo , K Keefe, R (2010). Barriers to Healthcare Among Asian Americans. Social Work In Public HealthVol. 25 , Iss. 3-4,2010